Events / News

Future & Current News / Events

Exhibition / Stalls / BSL Tours / Workshops / Public Arts / News / Project information

Olivier Jamin, Award Winning Multi Talented Contemporary Artist

Highly Commended of IPSE’s Collaboration Award for Olivier Jamin with Christina Wheeler 2021

Winner of IPSE’s Freelance Project of the Year 2019

Shortlisted for European Diversity Award (EDA) Coca Cola: Hero of the Year 2019

He is available for Interviews and to deliver the Workshops, British Sign Language (BSL) Tours / Deaf Led Tours, Solo/Group Exhibitions, Guest lecture, Digital videos, Lease Arts, Public Arts, Access Consultant, Live Installations, Filming and Photographs. Then please click email to Olivier: hello@ojart.net

If you wish to follow my Facebook page for more information such as news, events, videos/photos. Then click go to: www.facebook.com/olivierjaminartist

If you wish to follow my Instagram page for more information such as news, events, videos/photos. Then click go to: www.instagram.com/olivierjaminartist

All material on this website is the original work of Olivier Jamin and is protected by copyright.
All infringements will be pursued vigorously.


2022

May to September 2022

20th May to 25th September 2022

West Midlands Open Exhibition at The New Arts Gallery Walsall, UK

I am delighted to announce that I am exhibiting ‘Free as a Bird – Drawing Hands’ in the West Midlands Open. Link

This opportunity to celebrate the quality and diversity of the visual arts across the region will take place at The New Art Gallery Walsall, 20 May – 25 September 2022 (Preview Thursday 19 May, 6 – 8pm).

Works were accepted from West Midlands-based artists, artists currently studying in the region and those who have studied in the region within the last 10 years. Works were selected by Skinder Hundal MBE, Director of Arts, British Council, West Midlands-based artists Maryam Wahid and Nilupa Yasmin, as well as a panel of Gallery staff led by Director Stephen Snoddy.

Discover the full list of artists via the link in thenewartgallerywalsall bio.

More information about the exhibition at the New Arts Gallery –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net

 


July to End of October 2022

I am pleased to inform you that my design ‘Nuffin for the Puffin’ has been selected for Puffin Galore!

‘Nuffin for the Puffin’ –  LINK

Here a short video in BSL with subtitles and voice-over –  LINK

Special thanks to the Brignall family for sponsoring me to paint and draw ’Nuffin for the Puffin” on a large 3D model.

There are incredible forty-two artist decorated sculptures (5 ft) along the coast from Bempton to Spurn Point. Go and see it all!

The trail starts on 2nd July 2022 and to find out more about Puffin Galore! via website: http://puffinsgalore.co.uk/

@Puffins_Galore,
@puffinsgalore2022
@PuffinsGalore


October 2022

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at Mead Gallery, Warwick Arts Centre, University of Warwick, UK

 Radical Landscapes exhibition

Thursday 27th October 2022 at 2pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of  exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

Major exhibition takes a radical view of the British landscape with work from leading artists including Henry Moore, and Turner Prize 2022 nominees Ingrid Pollard and Veronica Ryan.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via Warwick Arts Centre website by clicking on the link below:

Mead Gallery, Warwick Arts Centre- BSL tour information – TBC

More information about the exhibition at the Warwick Arts Centre – LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


Live Art Installation event delivered by artist Olivier Jamin : Commissioned by Wolverhampton Arts Gallery, Wolverhampton, UK.

‘Fabric colouring Wildlife theme’

Join artist Olivier Jamin to take part in this fabric colouring activity.

Please view a link: 29th October 2022 – TBA

Brief activity plan
The participants (you) can use pens to colour in on fabric. You can do this and view the fabric which is on a roll, image to be revealed as coloured.

The activity is open for all ages, backgrounds and disabilities.
Please note there will be filming and photography on the day. Photos and videos will be shared via our social media channels including Wolverhampton Arts Gallery social media channels.

Event details

Venue: Wolverhampton Arts Gallery, Wolverhampton, UK
Date: 29th October 2022 – TBA
Time: 11am to 4pm

The photography and videos captured will be shown the same day and throughout the days/weeks that follows.

Special thanks to Wolverhampton Arts Gallery for commissioning this event for all.

For more details about the event, please contact hello@ojart.net or contact Wolverhampton Arts Gallery for information.

More event and information coming soon….

November 2022

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at New Arts Gallery, Walsall, UK

‘Breaking the Mould : Sculpture by Women since 1945’ exhibition

BSL tours:
Date: Saturday 19th November 2022 at 2pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘Breaking the Mould : Sculpture by Women since 1945’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via New Arts Gallery website by clicking on the link below:

New Arts Gallery, Walsall – BSL tour information – TBA

More information about the exhibition at the New Arts Gallery –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net

More event and information coming soon….

December 2022

More event and information coming soon….

January 2023

More event and information coming soon….

February 2023

More event and information coming soon….



Past events

2022

September

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at Attenborough Arts Centre, University of Leicester, UK

‘Bruce McLean: Black Garden Paintings’ exhibition

Thursday 15th September 2022 at 2pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘Bruce McLean: Black Garden Paintings’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via Attenborough Arts Centre website by clicking on the link below:

Gallery one at Attenborough Arts Centre- BSL tour information – TBC

More information about the exhibition at the Attenborough Arts Centre –  LINK


Live Art Installation event delivered by artist Olivier Jamin : Commissioned by ASLI (Association of Sign Language Interpreters and Translators in the UK).

‘Fabric colouring ASLI and Manchester theme’

Join artist Olivier Jamin to take part in this fabric colouring activity.

Please view a link: September 2022 – TBA

Brief activity plan
The participants (you) can use pens to colour in on fabric. You can do this and view the fabric which is on a roll, image to be revealed as coloured.

The activity is open for all ages, backgrounds and disabilities.
Please note there will be filming and photography on the day. Photos and videos will be shared via our social media channels including ASLI social media channels.

The photography and videos captured will be shown the same day and throughout the days/weeks that follows.

Special thanks to ASLI for commissioning this event for all.


August

A Host / BSL tour lead by Olivier at International Festival of Glass, Stourbridge, UK

Four days showcasing the dynamic world of glassmaking by the world’s greatest glass artists with high-quality exhibitions, international masterclasses, artist demonstrations and presentations, including the flagship British Glass Biennale exhibition.

This year we also join glass organisations worldwide for the UN International Year of Glass 2022 and explore how this amazing material has changed our lives for the better.

FREE BSL tour information on Friday 26th August at 2pm and Sunday 28th August at 2pm. Please book online to join in the tour – LINK 

Note: BSL Interpreters will be there on Saturday 27th and Sunday 28th August 2022. Please view more information about access – LINK

Information about the Festival –  LINK

Any enquiries about their event, then please email to : ifg@rmlt.org.uk


July

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at Wolverhampton Arts Gallery, Wolverhampton, UK

‘Black Country Beats’ exhibition

Saturday 30th July 2022 at 1pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘Black Country Beats’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via Wolverhampton Arts Gallery website by clicking on the link below:

BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the Wolverhampton Arts Gallery –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


June

17th June to 6th July 2022

Surfers against Sewage and Surf Wood for Good – Auction Ended

Thank you to Surfer Against Sewage for inviting me to produce some bespoke artwork on bellyboards.

“Freedom” – LINK

“Footprints at the beach” – LINK

St. Ives Brewery – The Brewhouse. There were an incredible 29 different bellyboard arts displayed on the walls inside the St. Ives Brewery – The Brewhouse, Cornwall, UK

They teamed up with @SurfWoodForGood, a new initiative to campaign against cheap, polystyrene bellyboards that we see discarded on our beaches every single year. Please contact Surfer against Sewage for more information.

Surfer against Sewage website: LINK

Here’s a short video in British Sign Language (BSL) with subtitles and voiceover  – LINK

Do you want to own some original bellyboard art?! Go to the auction page and bid to own one or a few!

Link below:

https://theauctioncollective.com/auctions/surf-wood-for-good/

Auction ended – 6th July 2022.

Facebook: @SurfersAgainstSewage
Instagram: @SurfersAgainstSewage
Twitter: @sascampaigns
Instagram: @surfwoodforgood

 


A BSL tour lead by Olivier at Mead Gallery, Warwick Arts Centre, University of Warwick, UK

‘Prophecy’ Summer exhibition

Thursday 16th June 2022 at 2pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘Prophecy’ Summer exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via Warwick Arts Centre website by clicking on the link below:

Mead Gallery, Warwick Arts Centre- BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the Warwick Arts Centre –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


A BSL tour lead by Olivier at MAC (Midlands Arts Centre), Birmingham, UK

‘John Akomfrah: The Unfinished Conversation, 2012’ exhibition and ‘Mixed Rage Collective: Unapologetically Other’ exhibition.

BSL tours:
Date: Thursday 23th June 2022 at 1pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘John Akomfrah: The Unfinished Conversation, 2012’ exhibition and ‘Mixed Rage Collective: Unapologetically Other’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via MAC website by clicking on the link below:

MAC Birmingham – BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the MAC –  John’s exhibition : LINK and Mixed rage :  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


May

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at Gallery one, Attenborough Arts Centre, University of Leicester, UK

‘In Which Language Do We Dream?’ exhibition

Thursday 19th May 2022 at 2pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘In Which Language Do We Dream?’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via Attenborough Arts Centre website by clicking on the link below:

Gallery one at Attenborough Arts Centre- BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the Attenborough Arts Centre –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


March

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at New Arts Gallery, Walsall, UK

Keith Piper’s Jet Black Futures exhibition

BSL tours:
Date: Thursday 24th March 2022 at 2pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of Keith Piper’s Jet Black Futures exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via New Arts Gallery website by clicking on the link below:

New Arts Gallery, Walsall – BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the New Arts Gallery –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


February

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at MAC (Midlands Arts Centre), Birmingham, UK

Maryam Wahid – ‘Zaibunnisa’ exhibition

BSL tours:
Date: Thursday 24th February 2022 at 1pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘Maryam Wahid – Zaibunnisa’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via MAC website by clicking on the link below:

MAC Birmingham – BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the MAC –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


2021 – 2022

23rd November 2021 to 9th January 2022

Birmingham by Night Exhibition at Roundhouse, Birmingham, UK

Details:

6 November 2021 – 27 March 2022
Free to enter, please check online for more information.

Information about exhibition:
Birmingham by Night is co-produced with young curators from Beatfreeks’ Don’t Settle project. The exhibition focuses on the perception of Birmingham’s night shift workers from the late Victorian period, and from today.

During the late 1800’s, night soil men and lamplighters worked throughout the night for the Corporation of Birmingham (a pre-cursor to the local council) and both used the Roundhouse as a base for their work.

These professions provided inspiration for our understanding of the roles, experiences, and perceptions of local night shift workers, then and now.

Through research and artist commissions, this display investigates opinions about the people who go to work whilst we are asleep to keep the city going.

The exhibition features newly commissioned work below and click links:

Christian Asare
Olivier Jamin
Ahsen Sayeed
Beth Bennett
Ryan Hart
Space_Play

Don’t Settle curators and researchers are:

Ellis Winter
Raveena Kaur
Rahma Mohammed
Umar Sujad
Sampira Al-Fihri

This exhibition is a partnership between Roundhouse Birmingham and Beatfreeks’ Don’t Settle project, which aims to empower young people of colour from Birmingham and the Black Country to change the voice of heritage through the arts, research, and governance.

More information about Roundhouse, Birmingham: LINK

More about Olivier’s work ‘Hidden Giant’ : LINK

More information about Don’t Settle / Beatfreek: LINK


23rd November 2021 to 9th January 2022

Runaway Reindeer, Gloucester, UK

I am pleased to have completed my hand drawn artwork on Runaway Reindeer for @gloucester_bid and @gloucesterculturetrust at the JOLT studio in Gloucester! My Runaway Reindeer is named Silvanus.

A link to my Instagram page: LINK

It took me five days to create my hand drawn art on my Reindeer ‘Silvanus’

Gloucester BID picked 12 incredible artists who painted, sprayed and used pens on 12 Runaway Reindeers. (One per artist)

My Reindeer is inspired by the nature in Gloucestershire and the stained glass from Gloucester Cathedral.

I met many fantastic artists, shared their experiences, it was so great seeing each other’s work from start to finished pieces whilst also getting to know the other artists who were both local to Gloucestershire and from further afield.

Our shared space was in the same room with @tamsin_illustration @phasechan @slazzomattik who created some wonderful pieces. There were other artists using their own studio spaces and creating amazing work.

With special thanks to Tim Martin (slazzomattik) and Lydia Hartley (phasechan) who supported me and agreed to lend me some of their spray cans for my work.

Here is a list of the 12 artists for you to view their Instagram below:
@tamsin_illustration
@slazzomattik
@ben.ashworth.art
@amyissketchy
@phasechan
@lunalotusuk
@juice_naznaz_art
@sakurafoxdesign
@olivierjaminartist
@lilijane464
@haines.art
@sarahrobertsstudio

Thank you everyone at JOLT making me feel welcome.

More information about Runaway Reindeer Trail, Gloucester: LINK

More information about Gloucester BID: LINK

More information about JOLT Studio: LINK


November 2021

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at MAC (Midlands Arts Centre), Birmingham, UK

 The Butterfly Effect exhibition

BSL tours:
Date: Thursday 11th November 2021 at 1pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘The Butterfly Effect’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via MAC website by clicking on the link below:

MAC Birmingham – BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the MAC –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


October 2021

Shortlisted for IPSE’s Collaboration Award 2021

Christina Wheeler and I have been shortlisted for an IPSE Collaboration Award 2021. This collaboration has proved to be a success with published videos which have been seen by wider communities including D/deaf enabling them to learn about the history of Gloucester.

IPSE is pleased to announce the shortlist for the IPSE Freelancer Awards 2021 today, after receiving an unprecedented number of applications this year.

View the list of fantastic people and projects on this year’s shortlist here – membership.ipse.co.uk/freelancer-awards-2021/

The winners for each category will be announced on 14th October 2021 at the Awards Ceremony, in London.


Olivier’s art donation to Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust (BCHC)

I am pleased to donate three original hand drawn artwork ‘Thank you NHS and Key Workers’ to BCHC

They will display the artworks on a wall inside three different locations in Birmingham, UK for staff, visitors and clients to view the artwork everyday.

To find out more, visit www.bhamcommunity.nhs.uk/about-us/our-charity/ or contact the Charity Team at bchc.charity@nhs.net

BCHC’s article “An ‘Art’felt Thank You” about Olivier donated three artworks on 21st September 2021 at Moseley Hall Hospital – LINK 

Olivier explains in BSL with subtitles/voice over and BCHC Chief Executive Richard Kirby and Non Executive-Director Jenny Belza gave thanks : A video LINK (TBA)

View Olivier’s Instagram post about his donation to BCHC: LINK (TBA)

View Olivier explains in BSL and BCHC Chief Executive Richard Kirby and Non Executive-Director Jenny Belza gave thanks : A video LINK (TBA)

  • A short video to say thank you – LINK
  • Time-lapse drawings of Thank you NHS/Key workers part one – LINK
  • Time-lapse drawings of Thank you NHS/Key workers part two – LINK

A BSL tour lead by Olivier at MAC (Midlands Arts Centre), Birmingham, UK

Nilupa Yasmin: ‘Tera – A Star’ exhibition

BSL tours:
Date: Thursday 7th October 2021 at 1pm

Join artist Olivier Jamin for a deaf led BSL tour of ‘Nilupa Yasmin: Tera – A Star’ exhibition, offering an insight into the artworks from a deaf artist’s perspective.

If you are interested in attending, we advise you to book your place via MAC website by clicking on the link below:

MAC Birmingham – BSL tour information – LINK

More information about the exhibition at the MAC –  LINK

Any enquiries about my event, then please email to : hello@ojart.net


Olivier Jamin, Artist and Christina Wheeler Film-maker: Highly Commended with IPSE Collaboration Award 2021

I went to IPSE’s Freelancer Awards Ceremony at Kings Place, London on Thursday 14th October to find out who were the winners being announced for each category.

In short, we didn’t win the award unfortunately.

However, Andy Chamberlain, Director of Policy for IPSE who gave a speech mentioned us as being Highly Commended and explained that “Now before I announce the winners, the judges wanted me to make a very special mention of one other team in this category. The judges wanted to mark Olivier Jamin and Christina Wheeler as highly commended for their important work for the deaf community. Please can we all give Olivier and Christina a huge round of applause.”

I was in shock and pleased for our names to be mentioned as ‘Highly Commended’ in Collaboration Award 2021

I am happy to see fellow deaf freelance journalist, campaigner and blogger: Liam O’Dell who is the winner of IPSE’s Young Freelancer Award.

View the list of fantastic people and projects on this year’s shortlist and winners here – membership.ipse.co.uk/freelancer-awards-2021/


August to October 2021

Group Exhibition: Silent History, Hive JQ, Birmingham, UK

It’s finally happening! We have been waiting a long time (close on 2 years) to share this exhibition with you.

Silent History explores Birmingham’s relationship with d/Deaf, blind and disabled communities through its industrial history and attitudes in modern workplace environments. Co-curated by Olivier Jamin, Deaf artist and Fae Kilburn, disabled artist.

About Fae Kilburn: LINK

About Olivier Jamin: LINK

Come and see it from the 10th August – 3rd September 2021 at The Hive Gallery (inside the Hive Café and Bakery), Birmingham.

Address: The Hive Café and Bakery, 43-47 Vittoria St, Birmingham B1 3PE.

Update: The exhibition extended until 1st October 2021

Website: Silent History information

Instagram: www.instagram.com/thehivejq


September 2021

Live Art Installation event delivered by artist Olivier Jamin : Commissioned by Midlands Arts Centre (MAC), Birmingham, UK

‘Fabric colouring EcoFest theme’

Join artist Olivier Jamin to take part in this fabric colouring activity.

Please view a link: LINK

Brief activity plan
The participants (you) can use pens to colour in on fabric. You can do this and view the fabric which is on a roll, image to be revealed as coloured.

The activity is open for all ages, backgrounds and disabilities.
Please note there will be filming and photography on the day. Photos and videos will be shared via our social media channels including MAC social media channels.

Event details

Venue: Midlands Arts Centre, Birmingham
Date: Sunday 19th September 2021
Time: 11am to 4pm

The photography and videos captured will be shown the same day and throughout the days/weeks that follows.

Special thanks to Midlands Arts Centre, Birmingham for commissioning this event for all.

Special thanks for Uni-Ball for supplying the POSCA pens for participants to colour the EcoFest Banners.

For more details about the event, please contact hello@ojart.net or contact MAC for information.


August 2021

The Big Feast 2021, Stoke on Trent, UK

The Big Feast is back!

They’ve been busy planning with artists, partners and our Supper Club to make a return to the streets of Stoke-on-Trent City Centre (Hanley) on Friday 27 & Saturday 28 August 2021!

Their annual two-day event is jam packed with circus, dance, theatre, exhibitions and more…loads of tasty, FREE entertainment and fun for all the family!

There’s lots to look forward to…they’ve teamed up with the Sugarmill to celebrate the city’s love of live music in Bangers & Mosh! The Piccadilly Stage is back where you can see poets, choirs, dancers and more. Plus, a raft of first-time artists and companies throughout the weekend.

Update for the festival programme:
Deaf Artist Olivier Jamin will be hosting a deaf-led tour (two hours) around the festival and showing the exhibition, stage, etc. He will be giving a talk in BSL and there will be a BSL Interpreter with Olivier for voice-over and translation.

If you are interested in meeting Olivier, please visit the Town Hall stage at 1pm on Saturday 28th August 2021. It’s a free tour!

For more information, please view their website: LINK


July 2021

Olivier’s art donation to Mary Curie Hospice, Solihull, UK

I am pleased to donate one original hand drawn artwork ‘Mighty Sol’ to St Marys Hospice, Birmingham.

They will display the artwork on a wall inside for staff, visitors and clients to view the artwork everyday.

View Olivier’s Instagram post: LINK

To find out more visit Marie Curie Hospice


Olivier’s art donation to St Mary Hospice, Birmingham, UK

I am pleased to donate one original hand drawn artwork ‘Mighty Sol’ to St Marys Hospice, Birmingham.

They will display the artwork on a wall inside for staff, visitors and clients to view the artwork everyday.

About St Mary’s Hospice
At Birmingham St Mary’s Hospice we provide expert care and support for people living with life-limiting illness and for their families and loved ones. We provide this support at the hospice, in the community and within people’s homes. All of Birmingham St Mary’s services are free of charge to everyone that uses them, including patients, family members, carers and loved ones. We’re there at every step of the journey: helping people live well with their illness through dying, death and bereavement, for as long as we are needed.

View Olivier’s Instagram post: LINK

To find out more visit www.birminghamhospice.org.uk


June 2021

Olivier’s art donation to St Giles Hospice, Lichfield, UK

I am pleased to donate an original hand drawn artwork ‘Untitled’ to St Giles Hospice

They will display the artwork on a wall inside their family room for staff, visitors and clients to see.

Information about the Hospice:
St Giles Hospice provides care and support for local people, and their families, living with a terminal illness. Care is offered free of charge at the hospice’s centres in Whittington and Sutton Coldfield, as well as in patients’ own homes across the region.

Whilst St Giles receives some funding from the Government, the registered charity relies heavily on donations and income generation from the local community.

View Olivier’s Instagram post: LINK

To find out more visit www.stgileshospice.com


Olivier’s art donation to John Taylor Hospice, Birmingham, UK

I am pleased to donate one original hand drawn artwork ‘Bird’ (Free as a Bird) to John Taylor Hospice

They will display the artwork on their walls for staff, visitors and clients.

About John Taylor Hospice

John Taylor Hospice provides specialist end of life care for people living with a terminal illness and their families.

View Olivier’s Instagram post: LINK

To find out more visit www.johntaylorhospice.org.uk


 

If you would like to view past events and news, then please click a link below:

LINK

All material on this website is the original work of Olivier Jamin and is protected by copyright.
All infringements will be pursued vigorously.